[en] Linux-2.6.36-libre: turning Linux's Free Bait into Free Software
info en fsfla.org
info en fsfla.org
Lun Nov 8 10:39:19 UTC 2010
Cyberspace, November 8, 2010---Linux hasn't got any Freer between the
Linux-2.6.33-libre announcement, back in March, and the present
announcement, that marks the release of Linux-2.6.36-libre. Linux now
contains more non-Free Software, and more drivers in its Free core
that require separately distributed non-Free Software to function.
The welcome news is that Open Source advocates have joined the Free
Software Movement in denouncing the practice of Free Bait or Open
OSI director Simon Phipps writes “Open Core Is Bad For You”, “it's a
game on software freedom”, “it's a bait-and-switch, wrapping the same
old lock-in in the flag of open source and hoping you won't notice.”
Bait-and-switch is a deceptive commercial practice in which one
product is announced to attract customers, to sell another instead.
OSI director Andrew C. Oliver adds that “Open Core puts the software
user at a disadvantage in the same way that all proprietary software
puts the user at a disadvantage”, it “is merely a nick-name for a
proprietary software company”, and those who imply their “proprietary
software is open source or has the advantages of open source are
engaging in deception.”
This agreement between the Free Software movement Freedom campaign and
Open Source spokespeople on a matter of principle signals the
importance of denouncing this practice. However, most of our
community is not aware that Linux has this problem. The most popular
GNU+Linux distributions, and most of their user groups, downplay the
problem of non-Free parts of Linux.
Free Bait, or Open Core as first coined by Andrew Lampitt, is a
licensing strategy that combines Free and non-Free Software: the
distributor offers, under non-Free terms, premium features that are
not available in the Free, typically copyleft, core. The original
definition, presented in the context of deriving benefits such as
profit or code contributions, may appear confusing because it
conflates non-Free with commercial, but Free Bait does not mean
selling additional permissions to the same code, letting others offer
non-Free extensions, or offering Free extensions to paying customers.
Rather, it means that a community member or distributor of the Free
core also offers non-Free extensions to go with it.
Sad to say, Linux fits the definition of Free Bait or Open Core. Many
believe that Linux is Free Software or Open Source, but it isn't.
Indeed, the Linux-2.6.36 distribution published by Mr. Torvalds
contains sourceless code under such restrictive licensing terms as
“This material is licensed to you strictly for use in conjunction with
the use of COPS LocalTalk adapters”, presented as a list of numbers in
the corresponding driver, and “This firmware may not be modified and
may only be used with Keyspan hardware” and “Derived from proprietary
unpublished source code, Copyright Broadcom” in the firmware
subdirectory, just to name a few examples.
Although the corresponding drivers are part of the Free and GPLed
core, the features they are meant to provide will only be available to
users that accept the non-Free code that Mr. Torvalds redistributes.
The drivers work as bait, luring users into accepting the deprivation
of essential freedoms over the corresponding non-Free Software.
Most GNU+Linux distributions follow the same practice: they include
other freedom-denying programs beyond the kernel Linux, while
continuing to associate themselves with the terms Free Software or
Even if they, Linux included, remove all these non-Free programs, as
long as they keep software or documentation that induces users to seek
and use non-Free programs, they're still bait.
Please join us in bringing these problems to users' attention, and
also in informing users about the various Free GNU+Linux distros and
Linux-libre, our Free version of the kernel Linux. Available since
October 21, Linux-2.6.36-libre is Bait-free Free Software; Linux and
GNU+Linux can be de-baited and Free again, if we work together at it.
== About Linux-libre
Linux-libre is a project maintained by FSFLA, that releases cleaned-up
versions of Linux, suitable for use in distributions that comply with
the Free Software Distribution Guidelines published by the GNU
project, and by users who wish to run Free versions of Linux on their
GNU systems. The project offers cleaning-up scripts and Free sources,
binaries for some Free GNU/Linux-libre distributions, binaries to
replace with minimal changes the kernels in non-Free GNU/Linux
distributions: Freed-ebian and Freed-ora, and artwork with GNU and the
Linux-libre mascot: Freedo, the clean, Free and user-friendly
light-blue penguin. Visit our web site and Be Free!
== About FSFLA
Free Software Foundation Latin America joined in 2005 the
international FSF network, previously formed by Free Software
Foundations in the United States, in Europe and in India. These
sister organizations work in their corresponding geographies towards
promoting the same Free Software ideals and defending the same
freedoms for software users and developers, working locally but
Copyright 2010 FSFLA
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